Biosynthesis, characterization and antivenom activities of Moringa oleifera
silver nanoparticles: an experimental approach

Adeyi, A. O. , Olowookorun, T. O. , Ajisebiola, B. S. , Labulo, H. A. , Adeyi, O. E. and Ibrahim, H.

Keywords: Moringa oleifera, Silver nanoparticles, Echis ocellatus, Haemorrhage, Envenoming.
Published in Volume 23

Moringa oleifera has been previously established to possess neutralizing
potentials against Echis ocellatus venom. This study however, investigated the
bioefficacy of silver nanoparticles biosynthesized from M. oleifera leaf extract
aimed at improving its bioactivity against E. ocellatus venom-induced toxicities
using in vivo and in vitro methods. The intrinsic characteristics of the produced
M. oleifera-Silver nanoparticles (MO-AgNPs) were carried out using energy
dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission
electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Twenty-five
male Wistar rats divided randomly into five groups (n=5) were used for the
antivenom study. Group 1 received saline while groups 2 to 5 were envenomed
intraperitoneally with 0.22mg/kg (LD50) of E. ocellatus venom. Group 2 was
left untreated while groups 3 to 5 were treated with 0.2ml of antivenom, 5 and
10mg/kg MO-AgNPs post-envenomation, respectively. Blood and tissue of
treated rats were analyzed for heamatological parameters and histopathology,
respectively. The MO-AgNPs formation was confirmed with a colour change
from light brown to yellowish-brown with maximum SPR band at 420nm from
UV-Vis analysis, indicating a reflection of the bio-reduction of Ag+ to Ag0. The
Transmission electron micrographs showed well dispersed spherical AgNPs
with average particle size of 15.7nm. Treatment with MO-AgNPs caused a
significant improvement of acute anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia
induced by the venom in the envenomed treated rats. Also, MO-AgNPs
inhibited the haemorrhagic, haemolytic and anticoagulant activities of the
venom. Tissue lesions observed in heart of envenomed untreated rats were
attenuated after treatment with MO-AgNPs. The biosynthesized MO-AgNPs
exhibited potent neutralizing potentials than M. oleifera crude extract against E.
ocellatus venom toxicities.